Care Around Stillbirth and Neonatal Death (CASaND) Clinical Practice Guideline

Section 5 references

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  2. Roseingrave, R., M. Murphy, and K. O’Donoghue, Pregnancy after stillbirth: Maternal and neonatal outcomes and health service utilization. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology MFM, 2022. 4(1): p. 100486 doi: 10.1016/j.ajogmf.2021.100486.
  3. Lamont, K., et al., Risk of recurrent stillbirth: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ, 2015. 350 doi: 10.1136/bmj.h3080.
  4. Wojcieszek, A.M., et al., Care prior to and during subsequent pregnancies following stillbirth for improving outcomes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2018. 2018(12): p. CD012203 doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD012203.pub2.
  5. Smith, C., et al., The impact of genetic counseling on women’s grief and coping following termination of pregnancy for fetal anomaly. Journal of Genetic Counseling, 2021. 30(2): p. 522-532 doi: 10.1002/jgc4.1338.
  6. Murphy, M., et al., Trying to conceive: An interpretive phenomenological analysis of couples’ experiences of pregnancy after stillbirth. Women and Birth, 2021. 34(5): p. e475-e481
  7. Graham, N., L. Stephens, and A.E.P. Heazell, Care in pregnancies subsequent to stillbirth or perinatal death. Obstetrician & Gynaecologist, 2021. 23(1): p. 48-59 doi: 10.1111/tog.12708.
  8. Shakespeare, C., et al., The RESPECT Study for consensus on global bereavement care after stillbirth. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 2020. 149(2): p. 137-147 doi: 10.1002/ijgo.13110.
  9. Wojcieszek, A.M., et al., Care in subsequent pregnancies following stillbirth: an international survey of parents. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2018. 125(2): p. 193-201 doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.14424.
  10. Bakhbakhi, D., et al., Care following stillbirth in high-resource settings: Latest evidence, guidelines, and best practice points. Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 2017. 22(3): p. 161–166 doi: 10.1016/j.siny.2017.02.008.
  11. Fockler, M.E., et al., Pregnancy subsequent to stillbirth: Medical and psychosocial aspects of care. Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 2017. 22(3): p. 186-192 doi: 10.1016/j.siny.2017.02.004.
  12. Thomas, S., et al., Measures of anxiety, depression and stress in the antenatal and perinatal period following a stillbirth or neonatal death: a multicentre cohort study. BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth, 2021. 21: p. 1-9 doi: 10.1186/s12884-021-04289-0.
  13. Tsakiridis, I., et al., Investigation and management of stillbirth: A descriptive review of major guidelines. Journal of Perinatal Medicine, 2022. 50: p. 796–813 doi: 10.1515/jpm-2021-0403.
  14. Kuebelbeck, A., “Yes to Life” and the expansion of perinatal hospice. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 2020. 63(3): p. 526–531 doi: 10.1353/pbm.2020.0041.
  15. Page, J.M. and R.M. Silver, Stillbirth: Evaluation and follow-up. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America, 2020. 47(3): p. 439-451 doi: 10.1016/j.ogc.2020.04.008.
  16. Shorey, S., et al., Decision-making and future pregnancies after a positive fetal anomaly screen: A scoping review. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 2023. 32(17–18): p. 5534–5549 doi: 10.1111/jocn.16628.
  17. Rocha Catania, T., et al., When one knows a fetus is expected to die: Palliative care in the context of prenatal diagnosis of fetal malformations. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 2017. 20(9): p. 1020–1031 doi: 10.1089/jpm.2016.0430.
  18. Lou, S., et al., Parental response to severe or lethal prenatal diagnosis: A systematic review of qualitative studies. Prenatal Diagnosis, 2017. 37(8): p. 731–743 doi: 10.1002/pd.5093.
  19. Regan, A.K., et al., Association between interpregnancy interval and adverse birth outcomes in women with a previous stillbirth: an international cohort study. The Lancet, 2019. 393(10180): p. 1527-1535 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32266-9.
  20. Wendt, A., et al., Impact of increasing inter‐pregnancy interval on maternal and infant health. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 2012. 26: p. 239-258 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3016.2012.01285.x.
  21. Conde-Agudelo, A., A. Rosas-Bermúdez, and A.C. Kafury-Goeta, Birth spacing and risk of adverse perinatal outcomes: a meta-analysis. JAMA, 2006. 295(15): p. 1809-1823 doi: 10.1001/jama.295.15.1809.
  22. Smith, D.M., et al., Women’s experiences of a pregnancy whilst attending a specialist antenatal service for pregnancies after stillbirth or neonatal death: a qualitative interview study. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2022. 43(4): p. 557-562 doi: 10.1080/0167482X.2022.2098712.
  23. Freeman, A. and B. Wilson-Morris. Social return on investment of Rainbow Clinic. 2018.
  24. Meredith, P., et al., “Not just a normal mum”: A qualitative investigation of a support service for women who are pregnant subsequent to perinatal loss. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, 2017. 17(1): p. 6 doi: 10.1186/s12884-016-1200-9.
  25. Mercy Hospital for Women Perinatal. STAR clinic. n.d.; Available from:
  26. Boyle, F.M., et al., Perinatal bereavement care during COVID-19 in Australian maternity settings. Journal of Perinatal Medicine, 2022. 50(6): p. 822–831 doi: 10.1515/jpm-2021-0441.
  27. Güneş Öztürk, G., D. Akyıldız, and Z. Karaçam, The impact of telehealth applications on pregnancy outcomes and costs in high-risk pregnancy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 2022: p. 1357633X221087867
  28. Mone, F., et al., Diagnostic and perinatal outcomes in consanguineous couples with a structural fetal anomaly: A cohort study. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 2021. 100(3): p. 418-424 doi: 10.1111/aogs.14036.
  29. Kapurubandara, S., et al., Consanguinity and associated perinatal outcomes, including stillbirth. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2016. 56(6): p. 599–604 doi: 10.1111/ajo.12493.
  30. Flenady, V., et al., Major risk factors for stillbirth in high-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet 2011. 377(9774): p. 1331–1340 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62233-7.
  31. Heazell, A.E., et al., Care in pregnancies after stillbirth and perinatal death. International Journal of Birth and Parent Education, 2019. 6(2): p. 23-28
  32. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. The investigation and management of the small-for-gestational-age fetus. 2013  [cited Green–top Guideline No. 31; Available from:
  33. Goldblatt Hyatt, E.D. and J.L.M. McCoyd, Counseling pregnant people after previous termination of pregnancy for fetal anomaly (TOPFA): the double RAINBOW approach. Anxiety Stress Coping, 2022: p. 1-15 doi: 10.1080/10615806.2022.2047179.
  34. Frøen, J.F., A kick from within–fetal movement counting and the cancelled progress in antenatal care. Journal of Perinatal Medicine, 2004. 32: p. 13–24
  35. Erlandsson, K., et al., Women’s premonitions prior to the death of their baby in utero and how they deal with the feeling that their baby may be unwell. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica, 2012. 91(1): p. 28-33 doi:
  36. Efkarpidis, S., et al., Case-control study of factors associated with intrauterine fetal deaths. Medscape General Medicine, 2004. 6(2): p. 53
  37. Tveit, J.V.H., et al., Reduction of late stillbirth with the introduction of fetal movement information and guidelines–a clinical quality improvement. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 2009. 9: p. 1-10
  38. Saastad, E., et al., Implementation of uniform information on fetal movement in a Norwegian population reduced delayed reporting of decreased fetal movement and stillbirths in primiparous women-a clinical quality improvement. BMC Research Notes, 2010. 3(1): p. 1-11
  39. Warland, J., et al., An international internet survey of the experiences of 1,714 mothers with a late stillbirth: the STARS cohort study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 2015. 15: p. 1-11
  40. Moore, T.R. and K. Piacquadio, A prospective evaluation of fetal movement screening to reduce the incidence of antepartum fetal death. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1989. 160(5): p. 1075-1080
  41. Frøen, J.F., et al., Management of decreased fetal movements. Seminars in Perinatology, 2008. 32(4): p. 307-311 doi: 10.1053/j.semperi.2008.04.015.
  42. Palmer, K.R., et al., Widespread implementation of a low-cost telehealth service in the delivery of antenatal care during the COVID-19 pandemic: An interrupted time-series analysis. The Lancet, 2021. 398(10294): p. 41–52 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00668-1.
  43. Roberge, S., et al., The role of aspirin dose on the prevention of preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction: systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2017. 216(2): p. 110-120. e116
  44. Van Doorn, R., et al., Dose of aspirin to prevent preterm preeclampsia in women with moderate or high-risk factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One, 2021. 16(3): p. e0247782
  45. Hamulyák, E.N., et al., Aspirin or heparin or both for improving pregnancy outcomes in women with persistent antiphospholipid antibodies and recurrent pregnancy loss. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2020. 2020(5) doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD012852.pub2.
  46. Te Whatu Ora – Health New Zealand. Small for gestational age and fetal growth restriction in Aotearoa New Zealand He Aratohu Ritenga Haumanu mō te Tōhuatanga Kōpiri me te Pakupaku Rawa. A clinical practice guideline: Summary of recommendations. 2023; Available from:
  47. Antovic, A., et al., Obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome. Lupus Science and Medicine, 2018. 5(1): p. 000197 doi: 10.1136/lupus-2016-000197.
  48. Smith, C., et al., The impact of genetic counseling on women’s grief and coping following termination of pregnancy for fetal anomaly. Journal of Genetic Counseling, 2021. 30(2): p. 522–532 doi: 10.1002/jgc4.1338.
  49. Gravensteen, I.K., et al., Healthcare utilisation, induced labour and caesarean section in the pregnancy after stillbirth: a prospective study. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 2018. 125(2): p. 202-210 doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.14750.
  50. Shapiro, G.D., et al., Previous pregnancy outcomes and subsequent pregnancy anxiety in a Quebec prospective cohort. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2017. 38(2): p. 121–132 doi: 10.1080/0167482x.2016.1271979.
  51. Charrois, E.M., et al., Patterns and predictors of depressive and anxiety symptoms in mothers affected by previous prenatal loss in the ALSPAC birth cohort. Journal of Affective Disorders, 2022. 307: p. 244-253 doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2022.03.055.
  52. Goldblatt Hyatt, E.D. and J.L.M. McCoyd, Counseling pregnant people after previous termination of pregnancy for fetal anomaly (TOPFA): The double RAINBOW approach. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 2022. 36(2): p. 1–15 doi: 10.1080/10615806.2022.2047179.
  53. Armour, S. The lived experience of midwives caring for women facing termination of pregnancy in the late second and third trimester. School of Midwifery, Faculty of Health and Environmental Sciences, Auckland University of Technology 2018. Available from:
  54. Lee, L., K. McKenzie-McHarg, and A. Horsch, The impact of miscarriage and stillbirth on maternal–fetal relationships: an integrative review. Journal of Reproductive & Infant Psychology, 2017. 35(1): p. 32-52 doi: 10.1080/02646838.2016.1239249.
  55. Mills, T.A., et al., Better maternity care pathways in pregnancies after stillbirth or neonatal death: a feasibility study. BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth, 2022. 22(1): p. 1-14 doi: 10.1186/s12884-022-04925-3.
  56. Duman, M., et al., The effect of relaxation exercises training on pregnancy-related anxiety after perinatal loss: A pilot randomized control trial✰. Explore: The Journal of Science & Healing, 2022. 18(1): p. 44-50 doi: 10.1016/j.explore.2020.11.002.
  57. Beauquier-Maccotta, B., et al., Prenatal attachment, anxiety and grief during subsequent pregnancy after medical termination of pregnancy. Attachment to which child? Journal of Gynecology Obstetrics and Human Reproduction, 2022. 51(4): p. 102353 doi: 10.1016/j.jogoh.2022.102353.
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  61. Chichester, M., L. Tepner, and D. Côté-Arsenault, Nursing care of childbearing families after previous perinatal loss. Nursing for Women’s Health, 2022. 26(5): p. 379-388 doi: 10.1016/j.nwh.2022.07.011.

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